Copyediting includes the correction of spelling, grammar, usage, punctuation, and cross-references. It can also include clarity and continuity, fact checking, copyright and fair use, and standardization of formatting styles. Copyediting should be completed before the proofreading stage.
Proofreading is the final stage of editing. It is the process of ensuring that the final draft is formatted correctly and free of typographical errors and inconsistencies. It does not include spelling, punctuation, or more complex writing advice as defined in the copyediting description. Proofreaders check reference lists and in-text citations, table of contents, section headings, widows and orphans, and figure titles.